If you are an agile developer who is fluent in multiple languages, you understand the importance of testing. You have several types of tests (unit, integration or behavioural) at your disposal to check your application. The number of available tools, frameworks and even languages is enormous, just to mention a few: Junit, Geb, jBehave, Cucumber, Spock, Selenium. Dozens of other tools can help you verify whether your code is working properly. Besides, I assume you are familiar with TDD and BDD methodologies which are rather standard nowadays. Nevertheless, all of these tools have common limitations – they check your test environment only. Let me show you how one of Allegro teams responsible for the Offer Listing tests the production environment.

### Does it work?

We use Listing (based on microservices) to present a list of offers available on Allegro. As you know, microservices have their pros and cons. One of the most obvious disadvantages is decentralized data storage – keeping the same data across all services although it is constantly updated by various sources is not that easy. Our Listing retrieves data using an event bus but other applications may have adopted different solutions. Nevertheless, offers displayed on the Listing and on an offer page may sometimes be inconsistent. That is why we find testing data correctness and detecting any discrepancies between the Listing and other pages that important – we do not want to mislead our users.

Each microservice undergoes integration and unit tests. Moreover, we use behavioral testing to verify the Listing. After every commit the code undergoes the first two types of testing. Before the release, the code must pass behavioral testing. Naturally, each change must be also verified at the Software Quality Assurance stage. As you may know, you can use Allegro on your smartphone and tablet, so we have to check if everything works well on mobile devices. However, when after a short Listing failure our Product Owner asked if the application was working properly, we could not answer the question.

Monitoring allows us to answer any question about current memory or CPU usage. Graphite metrics give us insight on how many events we receive from other services, whereas NewRelic collects essentials and the most important data in one place. PagerDuty notifies us when our service is unavailable or about any unexpected behaviour of the application. But do we list correct offers? Does every page in the “Children clothes” category contain the right number of offers and correct data? If I type allegro.pl into the browser’s address bar and visit the site’s main page, can I tell if the service is working? Is that sufficient? Our metrics, monitoring and other tools we use tell us everything about the performance, but how can we be sure about the data the service displays?

### Assurance

We have experienced a failure of our data storage. We have received incorrect events from the event bus. We have processed them in the not exactly proper way too. We have even found a bug on the production environment once. Ok, we have found it twice, but it is never something a developer can be proud of. I hope you have never experienced anything like that, but on the other hand there is no such thing as perfect software. Naturally, each time we find a bug, we write new tests to make sure it will not occur again. But can we protect our application against a failure caused by a change in an external service the Listing depends on? In most cases, we can detect such risk owing to well-written integration tests, but there is always something we may not notice.

### Production bugs

Our service is tested a few million times per day by users who search, sort and filter offers. And they find bugs. Sometimes they inform us about some malfunctions, but these reports are often incomplete. We rarely know what browser they used or what exactly they did to find the bug. Reproducing an error is pretty hard and sometimes even impossible due to lack of information. That is why we decided to test the production environment on our own terms. However, even with that kind of tests we cannot be completely sure that the environment is free of bugs. Nevertheless, we perceive this testing as another step on the way to providing as perfect data as we can. But how do we do that?

### Red cucumber

So, here we have the production environment where we cannot mock anything. Besides, we are not 100% sure what we should find on next Listing pages. What can we use? We have already conducted behaviour testing based on jBehave and Selenium on our test environment. We could try the same tools but how about using something more exotic? Ruby and Cucumber sound good enough. Cucumber, just as jBehave is a framework which allows you to write business-readable stories. It is written in Ruby, so it works best with any Ruby-based solution, but Cucumber also supports Java, .NET and many other platforms. We wanted something that does not require hours of configuration despite complicated environment and Ruby seems to fit. On the other hand, we have got everything we need to test Listings available on the production environment. Selenium satisfies our needs so we decided to stick to it.

### Testing

Dealing with production tests is not that hard. The amount of code we wrote to cover several test cases is pretty low. The whole project consists of a step definition file, one yaml file that contains xpath descriptions and a few .feature files with scenarios. We run Cucumber features from CI environment on a regular basis.

### Set up

Ok, so what do we need? First of all, we have to download and install Ruby. We recommend current stable version, i.e. 2.2.1 but the previous ones should work just fine. Next, install two gems: selenium-webdriver and cucumber. The last element is a browser and it does not matter if you use Firefox or any of the headless ones such as PhantomJS or HtmlUnit. And that is all. Just enter simple cucumber command to run your tests.

### Examples

Alright, let’s take a look at an exemplary Listing test conducted on a production environment.

  Scenario: All items should have a price within a given price range
Given I am on a new Listing
When I set minimal price to random value and max price to anything higher
Then All items should have price within given range


Simple as that. Nothing extraordinary, common given-when-then construction and plain English. In this example scenario, we visit a random Listing page and filter offers by a price. Eventually, we check if any of the displayed items exceeds the given price range. The so-called “glue code” is behind each step, which is also known as the step definition. In this case, it is the above-mentioned Ruby. But what does the glue code look like in this particular scenario? Let’s see:

Given(/^I am on new listing$/) do randomListingUrl = "#{property['host']}/#{possible_categories.sample}?p=#{rand(100)}" driver.navigate.to randomListingUrl end  We build the Listing URL using an Allegro host, one random category from a table with several category names and a random page. Let’s take a look at the When part: When(/^I set minimal price to random value and max price to anything higher$/) do
minPrice = rand(100)
maxPrice = minPrice + 1
driver.find_element(:xpath, property['priceFrom'])
.send_keys(minPrice)
driver.find_element(:xpath, property['priceTo'])
.send_keys(maxPrice)
end


As you can see, we set minPrice and maxPrice very tight to find even the smallest difference. Next, we enter these two values into input fields responsible for filtering offers by price, which we locate using xpath. Eventually, we compare our random prices with prices of offers displayed on the page:

Then(/^All items should have price within given range\$/) do
minPrice = driver
.find_element(:xpath, property['priceFrom'])
.attribute('value')
maxPrice = driver
.find_element(:xpath, property['priceTo'])
.attribute('value')
driver.find_elements(:xpath, property['price']).each { |price|
unless value.between?(minPrice, maxPrice)
fail "price #{value} is outside range [#{minPrice}-#{maxPrice}]"
end
}
end


We start with checking minPrice and maxPrice provided in suitable fields. Next, we iterate through all offers and if any offer price exceeds the given price range, the test will fail. Naturally, it does not guarantee that offers have the correct price. Nevertheless, in most cases it helps us detect incorrect data. Maybe not after one run, but after a dozen or so. Another example? Let’s take a look at a test validating if the sort option works as designed:

  Scenario: Selected sorting type should really sort items by given parameter
Given I am on new listing
Then I am sorting offers by price with delivery descending
Then Every subsequent item should have lower price with delivery


According to the step definition, we simply iterate through all offers and compare offer prices.

### Tests result

But what if one of the tests fails? The CI build creates a log that includes a detailed failure description and a screenshot of the entire page which we can use to investigate the cause. We just have to enter the given URL and compare the result with the saved screenshot. Take a look at the failed scenario:

  Scenario: Simple check if page contains valid number of items # features/items.feature:3
Given I am on new listing                                   # features/step_definitions/steps.rb:30
http://www.allegro.pl/filmy?p=72
Then There should be between 1 and 60 items                 # features/step_definitions/steps.rb:44
found unexpected number of items which is: 61 (RuntimeError)


We know dependencies between the Listing and linked services so we can easily find if incorrect data comes from our or other service. Note the last line of the example presented above. Is that message about unexpected number of items caused by the Listing failure? Or maybe it was one of the linked services that failed? We can examine it later. The most important is that we know there is a problem.

### So guys, does it work?

The last thing we want to implement is running all test scenarios even hundred times per single build. And run builds all the time, not only after deployment. Verification of a huge number of pages, including filters, search phrases and every sort option should give us some dose of certainty. After the test we want to know the scale of a potential problem. We do not care about a single case or particular item. We must be able to tell our Product Owner: „yes, our data is totally correct”, or „no, 187 of 519,000 items present incorrect data”. Right now, we just get information that items are broken, which may suggest that something bigger is broken. Anyway, it is still useful information, is it not?